“Council on Foreign Relations”This Week: U.S. Politics – Pakistan – Kenya – more

From the Council on Foreign Relations

January 4, 2008

View this newsletter as a web page on CFR.org

In this Issue:

Obama, Huckabee Stake Their Claims in Iowa

Pakistan’s Frayed Politics

Kenya’s Political Mess

Obama, Huckabee Stake Their Claims in Iowa

Democrat Barack Obama and Republican Mike Huckabee triumphed in Iowa’s caucuses, vowing change at a time of deepening economic concerns. Read more

Interview with Richard Haass on the Challenges Facing the Next President (Nikkei)

Op-ed: “Presidential Hopefuls and the Middle East” by Steven A. Cook (Arab Reform Bulletin)

Campaign 2008 in Foreign Affairs: A series of articles by the top candidates previewing the foreign policy agendas they would pursue if elected

CFR Experts on U.S. Strategy and Politics

Pakistan’s Frayed Politics

Bhutto’s assassination and the turmoil that followed highlight serious problems in Pakistan’s transition toward democracy. Read more

Gwertzman Interview with Richard Haass: Pakistan Faces “Prolonged Difficult Future”

Backgrounder: Pakistan’s Institutions and Civil Society

Policy Options Paper: Pakistan

CFR Experts on Pakistan

Kenya’s Political Mess

CFR’s Michelle Gavin discusses the violence and political tumult that have erupted in the wake of Kenya’s December elections. Hear more

Council Book: Beyond Humanitarianism – What You Need to Know About Africa and Why It Matters

Interactive Map: Horn of Africa

Council Special Report: Planning for Post-Mugabe Zimbabwe

CFR Experts in the News

Russia (1/2): Ray Takeyh looks at the evolving relations between Iran, Russia, and the United States as they pertain to global energy markets, in the International Herald Tribune.

U.S. Foreign Policy (1/2): Richard Haass argues that today’s global challenges warrant an interest-based foreign policy, in The National Interest.

Pakistan (12/28): Mohamad Bazzi urges Congress to “increase pressure on the Bush administration to drop its support of the autocratic and ineffective Musharraf,” in the Daily News.

Persian Gulf (12/27): Walter Russell Mead argues that the security of domestic energy supplies plays a relatively small role in U.S. Persian Gulf policy, in the Wall Street Journal.

Britain (12/23): Walter Russell Mead writes that “British politics are boring no longer,” in the Washington Post.

U.S. Economy (12/21): Mark Fisch and Benn Steil write that the U.S. must “root out bad debt or more pain will follow,” in the Financial Times.

Iraq (12/21): Mohamad Bazzi looks at the implications of Muqtada al-Sadr’s decision to become an ayatollah, in the Nation.

 

 
 
 

AN INVENTORY OF NAZI SECRET WEAPONS …

…AND THEIR HISTORICAL PROBLEMATIC

There have been a host of books about Nazi secret weapons, detailing what is an incredible inventory of prototypical and futuristic weapons, from heat-seeking, wire-guided, radio guided, and even television-guided missiles, to tanks so gigantic that they are little more than impractical mobile pillboxes, to claims of the genuinely fantastic:

flying discoid aircraft, or flying saucers, to fuel-air bombs, “death rays”, particle beams, electromagnetic pulse weapons, “wind” cannon, and so on. And beyond these, there were even more incredible long-range paper studies of nuclear powered aircraft and “space shuttles”, gigantic solar mirrors in orbit to turn enemy cities and regions to toast, and a host of other paper projects almost too incredible to imagine. Usually dismissed derisively, these claims persisted in the literature, long after Adolf Hitler himself personally mentioned them, in what is usually seen as the demented ravings of a known madman:


We have invisible aircraft, submarines, colossal tanks and cannon, unbelievably powerful rockets, and a bomb with a working that will astonish the whole world. The enemy knows this, and besieges and attempts to destroy us. But we will answer this destruction with a storm and that without unleashing a bacteriological war, for which we are also prepared…. All my words are the purest truth. That you will see!


~Mayer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, the quotation was overheard by Italian officer Luigi Romersa


Hitler’s alleged claims here could easily be dismissed, as well as those of the postwar neo-Nazi sympathizers who first broke the story of Nazi flying saucers, as the farthest thing from “the purest truth.” Dealing with a known sociopath and genocidal maniac such as Hitler and his followers, it became easy to dismiss such claims especially when there was no corroborating evidence forthcoming. Then Renato Vesco’s Intercept UFO was published in the 1960 later republished, and then later republished again with additional material by David Hatcher Childress under the title Man Made UFOs 1944-1994: Fifty Years of Suppression.


Vesco, who unlike the neo-Nazi sympathizers who emerged after the war to first tell the story in the West German press provided a host of specifics, such as the names, types of weapons and laboratories and companies conducting the research on these advanced technologies. But again, as Nick Cook was to discover, the trail seemed to lead back to the same few sources, and it became a story impossible to corroborate. [Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point]. Vesco had mentioned the British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (BIOS) reports as substantiation for his claims, but those were, at that time, mostly inaccessible, and in addition, “researchers had been through all the available…BIOS files with a fine-tooth comb and had found nothing…”

Vesco couched his account of alleged Nazi “Fireballs” (the so-called Foo Fighters seen at the end of the war), within a tapestry of references to these other advanced missile projects undertaken by the Third Reich. But as researcher Kevin McClure put the case, Vesco’s “technical” descriptions of the alleged Nazi devices behind the Foo Fighters sightings were based on “pseudo-technical descriptions” that originated “absolutely and only with Vesco.” [Kevin McClure, The Nazi UFO Mythos, “Renato Vesco, Feuerball and Kugelblitz”] Add to this Vesco’s claims for ” fuel-air bombs” and the story – Vesco’s detailed references to scientists, companies and laboratories notwithstanding – became all too easy to dismiss once again

 

But then came the German reunification and the resulting declassification of documents by the American, British, and German governments. The truth is not merely incredible, but staggering, and it poses host of historical problematics, as we shall see.


A. The Missiles


A Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (CIOS) report, number XXXII-125, running to more than one hundred and fifty pages, details not only “an experimental model of an additional thrust unit which was to be fastened to either the A4(V-2) or the A-9 to give an additional range,” [“German Guided Missile Research, Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, G-2 Division, SHAEF (Rear), APO 413, XXXII-125] but also various “Amerika Rakete” projects for a guided missile with a range of 3,500 miles. These latter rockets, the report notes, with less than complete reassurance, “probably never progressed beyond the drawing board stage.” But additionally, there was a V-3 weapon, “a larger version of the V1 with an incendiary warhead instead of the (high explosive) normally used. Very little information is available concerning V3 control systems.” What, indeed, was this “incendiary warhead”? A thermite bomb? A fuel-air bomb? An actual atom bomb? The report is unclear.


As if this were not enough, a lengthy section of the report concerns a whole range of guided missiles being developed under the direction of Dr. Wagner for the Henschel firm. These included the HS-293-B, a rocket power glider with a wire guidance system, the HS-294-A rocket powered glider “with torpedo” that included a “special device for blowing off fuselage rear section and wings as soon as body touches water surface, fuselage front section then cruising as torpedo under water,” a small quantity of which were built for experimentation between 1941 and 1943!

Sturmtigers of Sturmmörser Company 1002, commanded by Lieutenant Zippel, take on ammunition in preparation for the battle to come in the Reichswald, February 1945.
These fearsome monster 38cm rocket projectors could penetrate up to 2.5m of reinforced concrete. Luckily for the Allies only 18 were completed by the War’s end.


There is a strangeness, if not downright implausibility, to military operations and statements of both sides during the last days of WW II. Consider the following Inventory of High Strangeness:

1. Hitler, during a conference with his generals in the Bunker in 1945, made the wild pronouncement, when questioned by one of them as to why the strongest and best formations left to the Wehrmacht were deployed, not in defense of Berlin, but of Prague, that Prague was the key to winning the war. Allied military intelligence also confirmed that the strongest SS panzer formations were deployed in the vicinity of Prague, an order of battle that, on the plain face of things, made no military sense to them, other than, as the Allies’ own estimates of the situation concluded, that Berlin had ceased to be an important economic and military target.

2. General Patton’s US Third Army literally raced through Bavaria into Bohemia, making a beeline for the famous Skoda armaments works at Pilsen, all but blown off the map by Allied bombing raids.

3. Hitler boasted that Germany would deploy horrendous new weapons that would snatch victory from defeat at “five minutes past midnight.”

4. The Germans were nearing completion of an enormous airfield in Norway.

5. U-boats departed Germany with secret cargoes, some bound for Japan, others to the South Atlantic, right up to the end of the war. One of these, the U-234, was carrying plans for rockets, jet aircraft, scientists and engineers, and two Japanese military officers, was bound for Japan. When captured by the Americans, the U-boat’s torpedo tubes were discovered to have been full of metal cylinders that, according to some reports, were lined with gold. Gold lining has but one purpose: to protect from radiation of refined uranium, yet Germany, so the allied legend goes, was nowhere near a functioning nuclear reactor, and therefore, nowhere near enough stockpiling of weapons-grade uranium.



Other U-boats surrendered themselves to Argentinean authorities three months after the war, and their captains steadfastly refused to reveal their cargoes or whereabouts for the three months following the German surrender.

6. With respect to the probable use of the cylinders in U-234 to transport refined uranium, it is worth noting that as late as March 1945, American engineers in the Manhattan project complained that their stocks of U-235 were about half the necessary critical mass for a bomb, after three years of intensive stockpiling and research. So another nasty question for standard looms: where did the other half come from?

7. Curiously, approximately a week before the German surrender, a lone Luftwaffe Ju-390 flew from Norway to within 12 miles of New York City, and then back to Norway, a non-stop flight of over 32 hours.

8. Equally curious is the fact that the American uranium bomb dropped on Hiroshima was never tested. We are implicitly asked to believe the post-war histories that the Americans dropped their one and only supply of an uranium bomb on Hiroshima without having first tested it, an exercise of military folly and incompetence unthinkable at that stage of the war. What is the bomb had not exploded, and the Japanese, eagerly at work on their own A-bomb (and according to one version, within days of testing their own version of it successfully) recovered it?

9. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, what does one make, when all is said and done, of the sudden inability of Heisenberg, Hartek, Diebner, Gerlach, Hahn and others to produce the bomb, especially since Heisenberg was able, within a week of the news of Hiroshima, to come up with an essentially correct estimate of the critical mass of a uranium bomb and the basic design of the bomb itself?

.



click pic


A lengthy section of the report, from page 139 to almost the end of the report, concerned the development of miniaturized television camera guidance systems for various missiles, including the well-known anti-aircraft rocket, the “Wasserfall”(Waterfall), Many of these tests failed, but by the war’s end, a successful test of the television-guided “Tonne” missile was conducted by German scientists for the Allies in Berlin, with the target being a photograph of a little girl’s face. The test was successful, much to the impressed, and doubtless shocked, Allied observers. [William Uricchio, “Envisioning the Audience: Perceptions of Early German Television’s Audiences, 1935-1944]


To this astounding inventory, one may add radio-controlled surface to air missiles – one of which sank the Italian battleship Roma on its way to surrender to the Allies – infrared heat seeking air-to-air and surface to air missiles, wire guided missiles and torpedoes, biological and chemical warheads for the V-l and V-2, and possible fuel-air and atomic warheads as well. [Q.v. Friedrich Georg, Hitlers Siegeswaffen, Band 1] In addition, the Heinkel and Messerschmitt companies were undertaking modifications of their He-177 and Me 264 heavy bombers to carry atom bombs. Where were these modifications being made? In Prague.

B. Prototypical Stealth (Radar Absorbent) Materials


But Hitler’s boast overheard by Luigi Romersa included more than just a prototypes for the “smart” weapons that would become such staples of the American military for decades to come. It also included a claim to possess invisible aircraft and submarines. Surely this, at least, was fantasy? Not so. There exists a British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (BIOS) report entitled “Production and Further Investigation of Wesch Anti-Radar Material, CIOS Black List Item 1 RADAR, BIOS Target No. 1/549,” whose significance is rather obvious from its title. The objective of this team was to acquire some 500 feet of this material for secret testing by the British Admiralty. [“Production and farther Investigation of Wesch Anti-Radar Material,” British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee 1/549, Report 132] The report details the production of various RAM materials (Radar Absorbent Material) by the Germans, via techniques that involved shredding and heating rubber, and combining zinc oxide, finely ground iron powder (the powder was ground into micro-spheres), which was all then pressed into sheets, and then transferred to press moulds, trimmed and heated under small pressure. This material was actually used on the hulls of some late Type XXI U-Boats, as well as on U-boat Schnorkel devices, to scatter Allied radar to return distorted or indeed, no radar signals.


Yet another type of RAM technology was being studied by the Germans for its effects on electromagnetic wave propagation. The report on this material is cited in full here:


Zeulenroda: Measurements were made on materials for absorbing electromagnetic radiation. One of these materials consisted of spiral steel shavings imbedded in paraffin, which was named EISENSPÄNE. Another material tested was manufactured by I.G. Farben and was called MOLTOPREN. No papers were available on this work but the results were given from memory as shown in appendix B. The purpose of this work was for the concealment of submarines.


Submarine stealth was not the only thing the Nazis were after: A large price was offered by the German Government for the development of ‘Schwarzflugzeug’ /Black airplane a non-reflecting material for use on aircraft.


Type XXI XXI U-boats, also known as “Elektroboote”, were the first submarines designed to operate entirely submerged, rather than as surface ships that could submerge as a temporary means to escape detection or launch an attack.

German Type XXI U-Boat: World’s first actual submarine

German Type XXI U-Boat: World’s first actual submarine

The Type XXIs had much better facilities than…


The Type XXIs had much better facilities than previous classes, with a freezer for foodstuffs and minor conveniences for the 57-man crew such as a shower and wash basin. It was much quieter, and enjoyed a hydraulic torpedo reload system that allowed all of its six torpedo tubes, which were in the bow, to be reloaded faster than a Type VIIC could reload a single tube. The Type XXI could fire 18 torpedoes in under 20 minutes. The total war load was 23 torpedoes, or 17 torpedoes and 12 sea mines. Greatly increased battery capacity, roughly three times that of a Type VIIC, gave these boats enormous underwater range. They could travel submerged at about five knots (9 km/h) for two or three days before recharging the batteries, which took less than five hours on the radar-invisible Schnorkel.

Because of its streamlined hull design, the Type XXI could travel faster underwater than on the surface, albeit only for a limited amount of time. This, combined with longer dive times at reduced speeds, made them much harder to chase and destroy by ASW surface ships. It also gave the boat a ‘sprint ability’ when positioning the boat for a line-of-sight torpedo attack. Older boats had to surface in order to sprint into position. This often gave the boat away, especially after aircraft became available for convoy escort.

Between 1943 and 1945, 118 boats of this type were built by Blohm & Voss of Hamburg, AG Weser of Bremen, and F. Schichau of Danzig. The boats were built faster than earlier types as the hull was constructed from 8 pre-prepared sections which were assembled after being transported from the various factories they were made in. However, Allied mythology says only one, U-2511, had begun a combat patrol by the end of World War II. This was in part a result of the lengthened training process, as the crews had to be trained to operate the new, sophisticated technology.

Most boats were scrapped or scuttled after the war, but eight were taken by the Allies for evaluation and trials. The United States received U-2513 and U-3008, which were commissioned into the United States Navy. U-3017 was commissioned into the Royal Navy as HMS-N41, and U-2518 became French submarine Roland Morillot. U-3515, U-2529, U-3035, and U-3041 were commissioned into the Soviet Navy as B-27, B-28, B-29, and B-30 respectively. Those boats influenced new Soviet submarine classes known by the NATO reporting names Zulu and Whiskey, although the Whiskey class was smaller and less sophisticated.

A ninth XXI also saw service after the war: U-2540, which had been scuttled at the end of the war, was raised in 1957 to become the research vessel Wilhelm Bauer of the Bundesmarine. It is the only XXI remaining.

This research may have paid unexpected dividends to the German secret weapons research project. In any case, the existence of actual “protostealth” Schnorkel devices on late war German U-boats attests to the success of some of these experiments.

This report also corroborates yet another allegation, often derisorily dismissed by mainstream researchers, that in May of 1945, a small flotilla of the new Type XXI U-boats, with their revolutionary hydrogen peroxide underwater “turbine” propulsion allowing extraordinary undersea cruising speeds, met, and annihilated, a flotilla of British destroyers. [Q.v. Henry Stevens, The Last Battalion (German Research Project)].


The allegations included the German use of new types of wire-guided, and magnetic proximity torpedoes.

At least one corroboration of this strange encounter occurs in the BIOS report:

Vierling has heard of electrical homing devices for torpedoes and their firing by a proximity effect. Torpedoes used magnetic fields varying at about 500 cycles per sec. Torpedoes were built by AEG in Berlin. Some work was done also at Gdynia. These torpedoes were reported to have sunk 12 Destroyers in one engagement in Arctic waters.

~“Production and further Investigation of Wesch Anti-Radar Material,” British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee 1/549, Report 132].

C. Computers

The Allies, as is known, perfected early digital computing machines during the war, which machines were instrumental in breaking the “unbreakable” German Enigma machine’s ciphers, but also of incalculable value in assisting the Manhattan Project engineers with difficult calculations needed for the atom bomb. In some rarely encountered but sophisticated versions of the Allied Legend, this constitutes another reason for the German failure to develop truly long range rockets and, of course, the atom bomb. But here too, the declassified reality is quite at odds with the postwar spin.

A computing machine was used at Göttingen for researches in airplane stability and ballistics. Machines could solve equations mentioned in two or three minutes with errors less than 3%. Only one such machine has been made. It uses ordinary vacuum tubes, a multiplying principle and two cathode ray rubes, one of which has a spiral scan. One tube draws the curve which is the solution and the other indicates the complex roots of the solution.

The Göttingen computer, however, appears not to have been the only computer designed and built in the Third Reich. Indeed, since the reunification, reports and actual photographs have surfaced of an enormous, “Eniac” sized computer built by none other than the Deutsche Reichspost by Konrad Zuse.

 

The question is, why would the postal service need such an enormous, and expensive, computer?

 

One reason is such a computer would have been invaluable to the research that Baron Manfred von Ardenne and Dr. Fritz Houtermans were conducting for the Reichspost on the atom bomb, and for running the difficult calculations of neutron free path and cross sections that required.

D. The “Superbombs”


Before the curtain of silence and spin came down after the war, a number of small articles appeared in the Allied press about the actual state of German atom bomb research. One of these was an article that appeared in the Evening Standard on August 7, 1945,
one day after the Little Boy atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. It is worth citing this article in full:

GERMANS TIMED ATOM BOMB FOR OCTOBER

The Germans had an atom bomb which would have been ready by October.

A colossal blast effect was claimed for the German bomb. It was said it would wipe out everything inside a radius of six miles, said B.U.P. to-day.

The German atomic plans were uncovered four months ago, when an Allied search party walked into a small silk factory at Celle, north of Hanover.

A laboratory of two rooms was buried away in the heart of the factory. A famous research scientist was still at work. He was flown to Britain the same day.

This man, with others, had been working on the atom bomb for months. The Nazi Government poured out money on it. Apparently they did not expect immediate results.

~Mayer and Mehner, Hitler und die Bombe


There are a number of disquieting things about this article. First, one gains the impression from the report that the “laboratory” was not even known to the Allies until the factory was occupied. Second, there is already evidence of a “spin” in the report, as the German program is understood to have been underway for only a few “months.” But the final and most unusual thing is that its blast effects, some 6 miles radius, or 12 miles in diameter, is far beyond the blast damage radius of even a large atom bomb, much less a fuel air bomb. The only known weapon with this extraordinarily sized blast radius is a fully-fledged hydrogen bomb. Professor Lachner of
Vienna maintained that the German atom bombs were deliberately intended by the Nazis to be used as the detonators for hydrogen bombs. But was there sufficient basic theory for the Germans to have thought of the hydrogen bomb at that early stage?


It should be recalled that Dr. Edward Teller actually first thought of, and proposed to the Allies, the hydrogen bomb in 1944.

1. The “Molecular” Bomb: The Hydrogen Bomb?


The idea of a “Superbomb” was first patented prior to World War Two in Austria, and a modification of the idea was patented in Germany in 1943. [German patent 905.847, March 16, 1943, cited in Mayer and Mehner, Hitler und die Bombe] Its inventor, Dr. Karl Nowak, explained the reason for his invention as being to create a superbomb without the radioactive fallout effects that were evident from atomic and thermonuclear explosions! In other words, the Nazis were already looking past the thermonuclear age toward the creation of second and third generation weapons systems that would give the same offensive and strategic “punch” but without the side effects! In theory, the bomb is workable, but was way beyond the technological capabilities of Germany, or any other power, in that time period. Basically, the idea was to create a state of matter in which, through ultra-low temperatures approaching absolute zero, matter would be super-compressed. The idea was then to detonate this material, subjecting it to sudden stress and heat, to create a sudden and massive expansion and explosion, and therewith, an enormous, H-bomb sized blast. Thus, there may have been a basis in actual German secret research for the incredible claim of the Japanese military attaché in Stockholm’s 1943 report to Tokyo that the Germans were investigating the properties of super-dense matter for weaponization.

 

2. The Fuel-Air Bomb


At the “small end” of the “bombs of mass destruction scale,” however, there are equally baffling, and problematical, assertions regarding Nazi research into the fuel-air bomb, the only known conventional explosive device with enough power to produce the blast and heat effects of a small “tactical” nuclear weapon. It goes without saying that today’s “tactical nuke” would have been World War Two’s strategic weapon. Once again, the first allegations of this type of bomb did not come with Gulf War One in the early 1990s, but with Renato Vesco. And his claims there, as elsewhere, were quietly ignored. But once again, declassification has verified his assertions, and to an extraordinary degree:

Liquid Air bomb
As the research on the atomic bomb under Graf von Ardenne and others was not proceeding as rapidly as had been hoped in 1944, it was decided to proceed with the development of a liquid air bomb. Experiments using ordinary powdered coal were not at all successful, but extremely good results were obtained from a mixture consisting of 60% finely powdered dry brown coal and 40% liquid air. The technical man responsible for this work was Dr. Zippelmeier. The first trial was made on the Doberitz grounds near Berlin using a charge of about 8 kg of powder in a thin tin plate container. The liquid air was poured on to the powder, and the two were mixed together with a long wooden stirrer. Kreutzfeld did this himself, and was present at the ensuing test. In an area of radius 500 to 600 meters trees, etc. were all completely destroyed. Thereafter the explosion started to rise and only the tops of the trees were affected, although the intensive explosion covered an area 2 km. in radius. Zippelmeier then had the idea that a better effect might be obtained it the powder was spread out in the form of a cloud before the explosion. Trials were made with a paper container impregnated with some waxy substance. A metal cylinder was attached to the lower end of this container and hit the ground first, dispersing the powder. After a short time interval of the order of 1/4 second a small charge in the metal cylinder exploded and ignited the dark funnel shaped dust – liquid air cloud. The bombs had to be filled immediately prior to the departure of the aircraft.

Bombs with charges of 25 and 50 kg. of powder were dropped on the Starbergersee, and photographs of the explosion were taken. Standartenführer Klumm kept a photograph of the result and showed it to Brandt (Himmler’s personal adviser). The intensive explosion covered an area 4 to 4.5 km radius, and the explosion was still felt on a radius 12.5 km. When the bomb was dropped on an airfield, much destruction was caused 12 km away, and all the trees on a hillside 5 to 6 km away were flat. On a radius of 12.5 km. only the tops of the trees were destroyed. [British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, “Information Obtained from Targets of Opportunity in the Sonthofen Area,” BIOS Target numbers C 28/8.211, C 25/549, C 6/137, C 30/ 338, C 4/268, C 22/2182, C 21/601]. Several important considerations are worth mentioning here. First, note the truly massive size and area of devastation caused by the relatively small fuel-air bomb, for the area covered by the second test is commensurate with the blast from a large atom bomb: 6 kilometers’ radius. Second, note that Zippelmeier has had a similar insight to Dr. Nowak’s “molecular bomb”: compression of material and then rapid dispersion over an area prior to detonation. This is only one step short of a modern fuel air bomb with its chain molecules and electrical, instantaneous, rather than slower chemical, detonation.

So in other words, regardless of whether or not the Nazis actually detonated atom bombs during World War Two, they did have a weapon of mass destruction as powerful as an atom bomb, and one that did not have radioactive side effects. Moreover, the weight of this bomb, while large, was within the capabilities of existing German bombers to carry. Finally, it is to be noted that this test took place under the direct auspices of the SS, Himmler’s representative himself being present for it. And that would place the weapon firmly within the orbit of Kammler’s “think tank.” But possession of a fuel-air bomb by Nazi Germany now raises some important historical problematics.

E. The Historical Problematic
German possession of even a prototype fuel-air bomb during World War Two causes a number of historical problems, and it is worth considering them and their implications.
First, the test of such a device during the war would give lie to the contemporary “public” history of the fuel-air bomb, since they are only supposed to be the offshoot of American thermonuclear research and dating from the early 1980s. Doubtless, the modern fuel-air bomb is nothing like the early German prototype, with its chain molecules and simultaneous electrical detonation, it is a lighter, and much more powerful device.
Second, if the technology existed for such enormous conventional bombs capable of wreaking strategic large scale destruction on the order of small atom bombs, why were untold billions spent on much more expensive atomic and thermonuclear bombs, whose side-effects included deadly radioactivity, and why was the charade continued for so long? The existence of such weapons indicates that at some very profound, and little appreciated, level, the Cold War was a partial sham.

Third, the basic idea for such a weapon had, in fact, been explored by
Austria (prior to its annexation by Germany), and then subsequently both by Italy and Germany in the years immediately prior to the war. The idea is simple, and the effects obvious. So why did it take this long to obtain the weapon? Or is there a history that has not yet come to light? Given the allegations of the German use of some weapon of extraordinary strategic explosive power on the Eastern Front, it seems likely that some similar type of weapon was already in use. The Zippelmeier test may thus only have been a test, not of the concept itself, but of how large of a weapon could actually be made. The results, as have been seen, were probably beyond even the Nazis’ wildest destructive dreams.
But what do all these fantastic projects indicate about the nature of German secret weapons research? We may draw a number of conclusions from the evidence presented thus far, and in so doing, speculatively reconstruct the “mission briefing” of the secret weapons think tank being run by Kammler’s SS Sonderkommando:

(1) Overlapping technologies were to be developed that could be employed in across a wide variety of various weapons systems (Stealth and RAM technology, etc);
(2) Every available method for the creation of prototypical “smart weapons” was to be pursed (wire, radio, and television-guidance systems), i.e., German technological and engineering competence were to be exploited to the maximum;
(3) This technological competence was to be pursued in (then) unconventional ways and combinations to create not only new weapons, but a new doctrine of warfare;
(4) The first generation of these weapons were then to be extrapolated upon, and second and third generation technology trees and long range goals mapped out;
[5] The ultimate quest was for the attainment of weapons of mass destruction beyond the acquisition of atomic and thermonuclear weapons;
(6) Post-nuclear systems were then to be developed ideally, and initial research on those systems undertaken; and finally,
(7) Every known theoretical principle of physics was to be pondered and extrapolations for weaponization theorized, and, to the extent possible, experimented upon and utilized.
In other words, the Kammlerstab’s mission brief was to think “outside the box” entirely, even if that meant outside the box of Nazi party ideology, or, when it suited it, inside it. The basis was the will to power, by whatever means possible.

All these considerations raise a final problematic: President Eisenhower, as he was leaving office, gave his celebrated warning to the American people about the spiritual and cultural dangers of “the military industrial complex.” With the influx of Nazi “Paperclip” scientists, many if not most of whom – including Dornberger, Oberth, and von Braun – were members of Kammler’s “think tank”, this warning by someone in the know must surely be interpreted differently than current standard explanations. Having fought the world’s first “military-industrial complex” and doubtless seen at least some of its extraordinary inventory of weapons and theoretical papers,

President Eisenhower is surely raising another ominous, though overlooked, specter: Just whose military-industrial complex is he really warning about? What possible spiritual and cultural dangers were there to the American people from good old American companies like Boeing, DuPont, Lockheed, Hughes, and so on, unless, in importing ex-Nazi scientists and their unusual methods and insights and experimental results (often achieved at the cost of enormous human suffering), we inadvertently imported an underlying ideology at variance with traditional morality.



Ice Bomb


It was reported that there was interest shown in a bomb in which the thermal properties of its reaction were endothermic – that is, intense cold would be produced on detonation instead of strong heat. The purpose was supposed to be the freezing of large areas – maybe a mile radius from the site of detonation – and the quick destruction of all living beings from the affected area which would soon recover. The effect is the same as that of a neutron bomb – removal of all life forms without destroying the buildings. No efforts were ever made to even test the possibility of such a device. Just another high-flown and completely impracticable idea dreamed up by
Germany as the situation became desperate. However, reports surfaced at the end of 1954 and were confirmed by former President Harry Truman that the Soviet Union supposedly got hold of the records of the ice bomb experiments and developed it further, with some success.



The debate these days is all about whether or not
Tehran is supplying Iraq‘s Armor-Piercing Bombs. But the roots of these explosively formed projectiles, or EFPs, goes all the way back to Hitler-era Germany, the Yorkshire Ranter notes. Military historian Larry Grupp explains:

Dr. Hubert Schardin was definitely not a Nazi. Nevertheless, he stood stiffly at attention in full Luftwaffe dress uniform at Gestapo headquarters in Budapest, Hungary. It was the spring of 1944 and Schardin, a brilliant German explosives physicist, needed assistance. Under direct orders from Adolf Hitler to develop new super weapons, he needed the Gestapo’s help to locate a famous but reclusive Hungarian colonel named Misznay who could provide detailed information regarding the complex physics involved in shaped charge explosives.

Colonel Misznay was, by all historical indicators, so elusive that today we are even uncertain what his real first name was. In all probability, Misznay was either a double or perhaps even a triple agent. After World War II, he dropped out of sight in the Eastern Bloc. Yet his last name lives on as a result of a special explosive phenomenon he identified, called the Misznay-Schardin effect — a phenomenon that recognizes that fragments can be thrown from the face of an explosive charge in a predictable pattern, much like a projectile from a rifle barrel.

The formation process for a tactical EFP warhead from its initial pre-detonation state to the fully formed profile

It is that effect which forms the heart of the EFP’s deadly power; they have been used to defeat armored vehicles for more than 30 years.

The EFP warhead was derived from the Misznay-Schardin device [Schardin, H.
“Über das Wesen der Hohlladung.” Wehrtechnische Monatshefte, vol 51 (1954): 97-120]
which consists of a right circular cylinder of explosive, with a shallow cavity in one end that is fitted with a thin metallic liner. Upon detonation, the liner dynamically transforms into an aerodynamic projectile traveling at high velocity (typically 1500-2000 m/s). With a mass of 500 g or more, a velocity of 2000 m/s, and kinetic energy on the order of 1 MJ, these projectiles are capable of penetrating more than 10 cm of armor.

SOURCE

Methods of Artificial Weather Manipulation(AWM) help agriculture, devastate the enemy and control the world economy

 
 
 
 
 
 

Methods of Artificial Weather Manipulation(AWM) help agriculture, devastate the enemy and control the world economy 2005

Scientists, Weather Engineers and Space Specialists are working towards something that can change human civilization forever! It is the methods of artificial weather modification.

The process when perfected, can help in agriculture, getting rid of droughts, floods and avoid cyclones and typhoons.

It is also the process by which the enemy can be devastated, artificial floods, cyclones and typhoons created.

It can allow controlling the world economy and agricultural commodity markets.

In ancient religions and legends, weather control, creation of cyclone, rain, flood, drought were nothing new. In the modern age the Scientists and technologists are busy perfecting the weather control sciences. It is shaping up as the most vibrant area of research and development.

Many countries are mastering the science of weather control. As a matter of fact many experts predict that a war game is being played by major powers in the world to demonstrate their capabilities of weather control. Most of these initiatives are classified and shoved off from the public. The only way one can track these initiatives is to look at countries taking actions to shield against weather control experiments.

Recently, scientists and engineers have started unveiling the actual methods of weather control. Some primitive methods like Cloud-top seeding can confuse you and point you to a wrong direction. Cloud-top seeding is usually performed between the temperatures of -5°C and -10°C. The greatest amount of super-cooled liquid water is usually found within this range. This corresponds to an altitude range of 15,000 to 22,000 ft depending upon location. Dropping or ejecting silver iodide flares into the growing cloud turrets dispenses seeding agent. The seeding agent is placed into the super-cooled clouds where nucleation is desired, so the updrafts in these cases are relied upon only to provide a continuing source of condensate. This delivery technique requires less anticipation on the part of those directing the seeding operations and may have a more immediate effect.

The more modern methods involve artificial ionization of earth’s atmosphere between 15,000 and 30,000 ft. and above. Manipulating the ionosphere and use of controlled solar-terrestrial interactions can create much larger effects. Scientists are realizing that the earth’s weather is controlled by Sun’s natural Electromagnetic Radiation reaching the earth. The Sun’s Radiations and Ultraviolet Rays have to cross the ionosphere to reach the earth.

There are early indications that the solar radiations and flares are directly responsible for planetary weather changes. And Solar flares and levels of radiations are caused by bombardment of cosmic rays on the Sun from either a distant massive black hole or a star-cluster caused by the collapse of thousands and thousands of stars in a small space.

Computer models obviously focused on the ionosphere, which acts as a filter for the solar radiations to reach the earth. If one can manipulate and control the filter, it becomes a potential source of massive weather modification. That is what the computer simulation models found. Controlling the ionosphere potentially allows weather control. The algorithmic variation of ionosphere can create the magic in a massive scale.

There are many methods of controlling the ionosphere. It is the process of artificially manipulating ion density in the ionosphere. High power transmitter and antenna array operating in the HF(High Frequency) range is one of the methods. There are lots of literature on that in the Internet and declassified scientific research journals.

However, the recent trend is in using super conductors in space satellites to generate intense high intensity electromagnetic flux.

http://www.indiadaily.com/editorial/2070.asp

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Scientists serious about ‘electricity sickness’ claims

Scientists serious about ‘electricity sickness’ claims

Reports by Nic Fleming, Health Correspondent

L

Scientists and health advisers are taking the claims of people who say electricity makes them ill seriously for the first time.

The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) is carrying out a review of existing scientific studies into “electromagnetic hypersensitivity” (EHS).

  Brian Stein
Brian Stein suffers from electromagnetic hypersensitivity

Two studies into the condition, funded with £750,000 from the Department of Health and the telecommunications industry, are already under way.

Sir William Stewart, the government’s adviser on radiation, has called for more research into the issue.

Some researchers believe a proportion of the population suffers ill health, with symptoms including fatigue, severe headaches and skin problems, because of exposure to electromagnetic fields. Other scientists say there is no evidence.

The Swedish government, which recognised EHS as a physical impairment in 2000, calculates that 3.1 per cent of its population – 200,000 people – suffer from the condition. A recent warning by Sir William, head of the NRPB and the Health Protection Agency, that parents should limit their children’s use of mobile phones received widespread publicity.

However, his suggestion that another section of the population, as well as the young, could have extra sensitivity to exposure to either radio frequency fields from mobiles or electromagnetic fields in general did not.

The NRPB has commissioned Dr Neil Irvine, of the Health Protection Agency, to carry out a review of existing scientific literature on EHS.

His report, focusing on symptoms, prognosis and treatment, will be published in the summer.

The Mobile Telecommunications and Health Research programme, funded by the Government and the telecommunications industry, is spending £8.6 million on 29 studies, two of which will investigate EHS.

A team at King’s College, London, is looking at whether mobile phones cause symptoms such as headaches, nausea and fatigue in those who claim to be hypersensitive and those who do not.

Researchers at the University of Essex are exposing two groups of volunteers to signals from a mobile mast to test if cognitive functions such as attention span and memory are affected. Half will be people who say they suffer EHS.

Dr David Dowson, a former GP who is now a complementary medicine specialist based in Bath, said he had seen around 10 patients he believed to be suffering from EHS. “I think the condition is increasing in prevalence, because we are living in a more electrically polluted environment.”

Olle Johansson, associate professor of neuroscience at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, has been studying EHS for 20 years.

He has shown in experiments that there is an increase in the number of mast cells near the surface of skin when exposed to electromagnetic fields, a similar reaction to that when it is exposed to radioactive material.

He said: “If you put a radio near a source of EMFs you will get interference. The human brain has an electric field so if you put sources of EMFs nearby, it is not surprising that you get interference, interaction with systems and damage to cells and molecules.”

Others say the condition is in the mind.

 

SOURCE

Hillary Clinton-Böses Erwachen in Iowa

Am Ende blieb Hillary Clinton nur die Flucht nach vorn. Nach ihrer gleichsam überraschenden wie demütigenden Niederlage in Iowa gratulierte die frühere First Lady ihren Konkurrenten und sprach von einer „großartigen Nacht für die Demokraten“.

Von ihrer Niederlage sichtlich gezeichnet: Hillary Clinton

Gewohnt kämpferische Töne

Clinton, die hinter Obama und dem früheren Senator John Edwards lediglich auf den dritten Platz kam, sprach von einer „großartigen Nacht für die Demokraten“. Die hohe Wahlbeteiligung deute auf einen Sieg des demokratischen Kandidaten bei der Präsidentenwahl im November hin, erklärte die frühere First Lady.

Ihren ehrgeizigen Traum, als erste Frau der US-Geschichte ins Oval Office einzuziehen, will Clinton aber nicht aufgeben. „Ich bin bereit für den Rest des Wahlkampfs“, rief sie vor begeisterten Anhängern in ihrem Iowa-Hauptquartier in Des Moines und fügte hinzu: „Ich mache dies seit 35 Jahren, das ist mein Lebenswerk.“ Die hohe Beteiligung an den Parteiversammlungen in Iowa belege die Mobilisierung der demokratischen Basis und den Wunsch nach einem Machtwechsel im Weißen Haus. Es gehe „nicht nur um die Wahl eines neuen Präsidenten, sondern einen Wandel im Land“.

„Ich bin immer noch hier“

Schätzungen zufolge beteiligten sich an den Abstimmungen der Demokraten in Iowa trotz klirrender Kälte rund 220 580 Menschen, deutlich mehr als die 124 000 beim letzten Mal. In ihren Augen ist Obama der glaubwürdigere Garant für den ersehnten Wechsel. An Clinton scheiden sich die Geister. Ihre Kandidatur erscheint wie der Versuch einer dynastischen Fortsetzung der Clinton-Präsidentschaft.

Zu ihren Problemen zählt, dass viele Wähler sie vor allem als berechnende Machtpolitikerin wahrnahmen, die seit Jahren mit kühler Zielstrebigkeit auf eine Rückkehr ins Weiße Haus hinarbeitet. Am auffälligsten war ihre Wandlung von der linksliberalen Feministin zur Politikerin der Mitte, die traditionelle Werte beschwört und in Fragen der nationalen Sicherheit eine harte Linie fährt. Denn Wahlen in den USA werden nicht am linken Rand gewonnen, sondern im politischen Zentrum. Dies ist die Erkenntnis, die hinter dem Erfolg von Bill Clinton steckte.

Bereits am Dienstag stellt sich Clinton wieder dem Wähler, diesmal bei der Vorwahl in New Hampshire. In dichtem Takt folgen dann die weiteren Abstimmungen in den 50 Bundesstaaten. Chancen auf einen Sieg hat sie durchaus noch. „Ich stehe seit 16 Jahren unter Beschuss, aber ich bin immer noch hier“, sagte sie und fügte hinzu: „Wir haben immer gesagt, dass unser Wahlkampf auf das ganze Land ausgerichtet ist.”

Die Powerfrau der Demokraten galt lange als klare Favoritin im Rennen um die Präsidentschaftskandidatur ihrer Partei. Die Senatorin von New York feilte an ihrem Politlebenslauf und sammelte bisher 100 Millionen Dollar Spenden. Ihre Wahlkampfmaschinerie lief wie geölt. In landesweiten Umfragen hat sie stets die Nase vorn. Dass sie in Iowa nur auf den dritten Platz kam, ist ein herber Rückschlag.Denn dem erstem Stimmungstest im Marathonrennen um die Nachfolge von George W. Bush kommt große psychologische Symbolkraft zu: Wer in dem kleinen Mittelweststaat in Führung geht, dessen Kampagne bekommt Aufwind. Bis zu 60 Prozent der US-Wähler geben an, noch nicht zu wissen, für wen sie sich entscheiden werden. Die Unentschlossenen setzen nur auf Siegertypen.

Das Momentum gehört nun

Barack Obama.

AP/FOCUS

 

 

 

Obama

 

Rising inflation keeps urban poor struggling in China

CHINA’S poor are struggling because of rising inflation and medium income earners are precluded from up-market consumption, according to a research body under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

The conclusions came in an annual report conducted by the Sociology Research Institution which analyzes and predicts China’s social developments, China.com reported yesterday.

The report found 10 percent of low income families in urban areas had per capita incomes 38.3 percent of the national average while 10 percent of the rural poor had per capita incomes just 33 percent of the national average.

Almost half the incomes of poor families went on food and medical costs took another 15 percent, the report said.

Lives of the impoverished, mostly farmers, the unemployed and laid-off workers, became even harder with last year’s rising inflation.

China’s consumer price index, the main gauge of inflation, climbed 6.9 percent in November, marking the fourth consecutive month when the index rose more than six percent. The price rises have already affected ordinary people, according to a previous report by Xinhua news agency.

The rocketing CPI was caused mainly by food prices which comprise about a third of the index.

“Controlling food prices and maintaining their stability are extremely important foundations for our social stability,” said Li Peiyuan, director of the sociology institution.

Medium income earners were found to lack the purchasing power for up-market products priced above 10,000 yuan (US$1,369.86), the report said, without defining “medium” incomes.

Products for basic living are still the mainstream for the household expenditure for the medium income group although it pays close attention to price fluctuations for up-market goods such as houses and cars, the paper said.

According to the report, the per capita disposable income in urban areas rose 13 percent in 2007, surpassing the forecast gross domestic product growth of 11.4 percent last year.

The per capita disposable income in rural areas may have reached eight percent last year, the fastest growth in 11 years, the paper noted.

The paper also revealed that the disposable income of urban high income earners was almost 2.26 times the national average.

The rich pursue a high quality lifestyle, spending a great deal of their income on overseas travel, luxury hotels, golf and up-market imported products, the paper said.

The report also revealed that even with a growing skills shortage, university students were having a harder time finding job. Around one million of the nearly five million graduates last year didn’t find a job.

SOURCE