Denmark and the ratification of the renamed EU-constitution

Tales of European Democracy – 01
ole krarup1 Besides referendums there exists a variety of political and legal tools to prevent unitaristic and homogeneous Europe to emerge. TEAM will try to collect and present some examples of the struggle against enforced political unification. First examples will be mainly describing legal aspects but we are always interested in learning new ways. You are invited to apply any of them or shape new ones within the practice of your national frameworks and then share your experience with us.

First story – Denmark and the ratification of the renamed EU-constitution

Denmark has had so far six referendums on EEC/EU of which the first was in 1972 when a majority voted in favor of joining the EEC…

Following referendums have been held when EU evolved through major changes, either because the Danish Constitution rendered a referendum necessary or because it had become an established tradition to ask the people on important EU matters.

The Danish Constitution allows ceding of sovereignty – to a limited extent – to international authorities if 5/6 (83%) of the Danish Parliament (Folketinget) votes in favor or if it’s accepted at a referendum. This is why the Danes voted on the Maastricht Treaty – and rejected it.

In 2004 the Prime Minister promised a referendum about the EU-Constitution but has broken his word after the French and Dutch referendums.

The “legal experts” from the Ministry of Justice have later concluded that “there is no ceding of sovereignty” with the Renamed Constitution and therefore there exists no ground for a referendum. Their main course of argument was that the Constitution doesn’t surrender any authority to EU in the areas where it already doesn’t have it.

But the truth remains that in more than 50 areas where until now decisions have been passed by unanimity from this Renamed Constitution on they are going to be voted merely by a majority. However this seems to be of no importance to these government’s lawyers.

As a diversion the government now speaks of having a referendum about the four Danish opt-outs. Perhaps this is even not a diversion; one of the opt-outs is on justice and home affairs. It’s an area where the Renamed Constitution will transfer a lot of power from the member-states to EU but as long as Denmark has its opt-out legal experts can continue arguing whether these changes have any consequences to us or not. Therefore we can be pushed to ratify the Constitution without a referendum and be asked to vote for a removal of the opt-out afterwards! Of course from the democratic point of view such procedure is totally unacceptable.

In the parliament the Liberal-Conservative government and the opposition parties of Social-Democrats and Social-Liberals (all of them in favor of the EU and of the Renamed Constitution) all agree with such procedure. The right wing Danish Peoples Party and the leftist Red-Green Alliance are – for different reasons – both against the EU and the Constitution and demand a referendum about the new treaty, not about the opt-outs. Also the pro-EU Socialist People´s Party is in favor of a referendum about the Constitution but there remains a comfortable majority in the parliament which is prepared to deprive Danish people of the right to have a vote on it.

Major cross-political EU-critical organizations like The People´s Movement against the EU and the June Movement have established a network of groups and individuals from different organizations and even from the pro-EU parties who are in favor of a referendum. They might still exert some pressure on the parliamentarians before the ratification process starts in the beginning of January 2008.

But if this attempt fails the People´s Movement is determined to use all legal means to prevent the ratification. The People´s Movement has demanded that a group of independent legal experts should analyze the consequences of the Renamed Constitution and the ratification procedure. They might come to different conclusions than the lawyers from the Ministry of Justice!

If the government refuses to appoint such a group of independent experts, Mr. Ole Krarup, professor of Law and former MEP for the People´s Movement (picture above) is preparing a court case against the Prime Minister. In Denmark there is no Constitutional Court, but the Supreme Court has once before accepted a similar case against the former Prime Minister and assessed whether the Maastricht Treaty was compatible with the Danish Constitution or not. The Supreme Court concluded that it was but that there exist limits to the extent to which sovereignty could be ceded.

So even if the Danish parliament disregards democracy there remain legal ways of postponing or preventing the ratification of the Renamed Constitution. And one thing is for certain: around 70% of the voters demand to be heard. The People´s Movement is collecting signatures in the streets demanding a referendum and the more arrogant the political elite will behave easier it will be to attract these signatures.

The Ekman Group- the new geno….?like Nazi-Menke!?

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1967 – Entering the New Guinea Highlands

1978 – Part of the publication of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS)

2006 – In discussion with His Holiness the Dalai Lama

Paul Ekman (1934 – )

Paul Ekman was an undergraduate at the University of Chicago and New York University. He received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology at Adelphi University (1958), after a one year internship at the Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute. After two years as a Clinical Psychology Officer in the U.S. Army, he returned to Langley Porter where he worked from 1960 to 2004. His research on facial expression and body movement began in 1954, as the subject of his Master’s thesis in 1955 and his first publication in 1957. In his early work, his approach to nonverbal behavior showed his training in personality. Over the next decade, a social psychological and cross-cultural emphasis characterized his work, with a growing interest in an evolutionary and semiotic frame of reference. In addition to his basic research on emotion and its expression, he has, for the last thirty years, also been studying deceit.

Currently, he is the director of the Paul Ekman Group, LLC (PEG), a small company that produces training devices relevant to emotional skills, and is initiating new research relevant to national security and law enforcement.

In 1971, he received a Research Scientist Award from the National Institute of Mental Health; that Award has been renewed in 1976, 1981, 1987, 1991, and 1997. His research was supported by fellowships, grants and awards from the National Institute of Mental Health for over forty years.

Articles reporting on Dr. Ekman’s work have appeared in Time Magazine, Smithsonian Magazine, Psychology Today, The New Yorker and others, both American and foreign. Numerous articles about his work have also appeared in the New York Times, Washington Post and other national newspapers.

He has appeared on 48 Hours, Dateline, Good Morning America, 20/20, Larry King, Oprah, Johnny Carson and many other TV programs. He has also been featured on various public television programs such as News Hour with Jim Lehrer, and Bill Moyers’ The Truth About Lying.

Ekman is co-author of Emotion in the Human Face (1971), Unmasking the Face (1975), Facial Action Coding System (1978), editor of Darwin and Facial Expression (1973), co-editor of Handbook of Methods in Nonverbal Behavior Research (1982), Approaches to Emotion (1984), The Nature of Emotion (1994), What the Face Reveals (1997), and author of Face of Man (1980), Telling Lies (1985, paperback, 1986, second edition, 1992, third edition, 2001), Why Kids Lie (1989, paperback 1991), and Emotions Revealed, (2003). He is the editor of the third edition of Charles Darwin’s The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1998). He has published more than 100 articles.

AWARDS AND HONORS

  1983 Faculty Research Lecturer, University of California, San Francisco
  1991 Distinguished Scientific Contribution AwardAmerican Psychological Association‘s highest award for basic research
  1994 Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters, University of Chicago
  1998 William James Fellow Award, given by the American Psychological Society
  2001 Named by the American Psychological Association as one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century based on publications, citations and awards
    Duchenne/Non-Duchenne Smile Photos*These photographs demonstrate the difference between the true enjoyment smile, and the social smile. Consists of two black and white photos and two color photographs.*©Paul Ekman 1993-2004$175.00 for first time users$85.00 per photo for subsequent use  
 
 
 
    New Guinea Photo Set I*Consists of 4 black and white photos in which members of a Stone Age tribe were asked to pose emotions. First used in the Nebraska Symposium.*©Paul Ekman 1972-2004$175.00 for first time users$85.00 per photo for subsequent use
    New Guinea Photo Set II*Consists of 4 photographs in black and white in which members of a Stone Age New Guinea tribe were asked to pose expressions of happiness, anger, disgust and sadness. First used in the Afterward by Paul Ekman which appeared in his edited edition of Darwin’s Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals. These photos are often used to illustrate the universality of emotional expression.*©Paul Ekman 1998-2004$175.00 for first time users$85.00 per photo for subsequent use  
 
 
 
 
    Seven photos from Unmasking the Face*These seven photos are in black and white, and illustrate every one of the seven universal emotions.*©Paul Ekman 1975-2004$175.00 for first time users$85.00 per photo for subsequent use
 
    New Guinea Photo Set I*Consists of 4 black and white photos in which members of a Stone Age tribe were asked to pose emotions. First used in the Nebraska Symposium.*©Paul Ekman 1972-2004$175.00 for first time users$85.00 per photo for subsequent use  
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Photos from Emotions Revealed*15 Photographs from Emotions Revealed, including neutral and two each of seven different emotions. Photos are in Black and White.*©Paul Ekman 2003$175.00 for first time users$85.00 per photo for subsequent use  
 
 
 
  For customer service, please contact paulekmangroup@gmail.com or call 1-888-556-8591
 
    New Guinea Photo Set II*Consists of 4 photographs in black and white in which members of a Stone Age New Guinea tribe were asked to pose expressions of happiness, anger, disgust and sadness. First used in the Afterward by Paul Ekman which appeared in his edited edition of Darwin’s Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals. These photos are often used to illustrate the universality of emotional expression.*©Paul Ekman 1998-2004$175.00 for first time users$85.00 per photo for subsequent use  
 
 
 

This is the old ” NAZI-STYLE!

Today all know this,

that this Geno..

was wrong & false.

Here:

http://www.paulekman.com/recentarticles.html

 
    Seven photos from Unmasking the Face*These seven photos are in black and white, and illustrate every one of the seven universal emotions.*©Paul Ekman 1975-2004$175.00 for first time users$85.00 per photo for subsequent use  
 
 
 
 
 
    Photos from Emotions Revealed*15 Photographs from Emotions Revealed, including neutral and two each of seven different emotions. Photos are in Black and White.*©Paul Ekman 2003$175.00 for first time users$85.00 per photo for subsequent use  
 
 
 
  For customer service, please contact paulekmangroup@gmail.com or call 1-888-556-8591